An In-Depth analysis of the new Taurus Stealer


Taurus Stealer, also known as Taurus or Taurus Project, is a C/C++ information stealing malware that has been in the wild since April 2020. The initial attack vector usually starts with a malspam campaign that distributes a malicious attachment, although it has also been seen being delivered by the Fallout Exploit Kit. It has many similarities with Predator The Thief at different levels (load of initial configuration, similar obfuscation techniques, functionalities, overall execution flow, etc.) and this is why this threat is sometimes misclassified by Sandboxes and security products. However, it is worth mentioning that Taurus Stealer has gone through multiple updates in a short period and is actively being used in the wild. Most of the changes from earlier Taurus Stealer versions are related to the networking functionality of the malware, although other changes in the obfuscation methods have been made. In the following pages, we will analyze in-depth how this new Taurus Stealer version works and compare its main changes with previous implementations of the malware.

Underground information

The malware appears to have been developed by the author that created Predator The Thief, “Alexuiop1337”, as it was promoted on their Telegram channel and Russian-language underground forums, though they claimed it has no connection to Taurus. Taurus Stealer is advertised by the threat actor “Taurus Seller” (sometimes under the alias “Taurus_Seller”), who has a presence on a variety of Russian-language underground forums where this threat is primarily sold. The following figure shows an example of this threat actor in their post on one of the said forums:

selling Taurus Stealer

Figure 1. Taurus Seller post in underground forums selling Taurus Stealer

The initial description of the ad (translated by Google) says:

Stiller is written in C ++ (c ++ 17), has no dependencies (.NET Framework / CRT, etc.).

The traffic between the panel and the build is encrypted each time with a unique key.

Support for one backup domain (specified when requesting a build).

Weight: 250 KB (without obfuscation 130 KB).

The build does not work in the CIS countries.

Taurus Stealer sales began in April 2020. The malware is inexpensive and easily acquirable. Its price has fluctuated somewhat since its debut. It also offers temporal discounts (20% discount on the eve of the new year 2021, for example). At the time of writing this analysis, the prices are:

Concept Price 
License Cost – (lifetime) 150 $ 
Upgrade Cost  0 $ 

Table 1. Taurus Stealer prices at the time writing this analysis

The group has on at least one occasion given prior clients the upgraded version of the malware for free. As of January 21, 2021, the group only accepts payment in the privacy-centric cryptocurrency Monero. The seller also explains that the license will be lost forever if any of these rules are violated (ad translated by Google):

  • It is forbidden to scan the build on VirusTotal and similar merging scanners
  • It is forbidden to distribute and test a build without a crypt
  • It is forbidden to transfer project files to third parties
  • It is forbidden to insult the project, customers, seller, coder

This explains why most of Taurus Stealer samples found come packed.


The malware that is going to be analyzed during these lines comes from the packed sample 2fae828f5ad2d703f5adfacde1d21a1693510754e5871768aea159bbc6ad9775, which we had successfully detected and classified as Taurus Stealer. However, it showed some different behavior and networking activity, which suggested a new version of the malware had been developed. The first component of the sample is the Packer. This is the outer layer of Taurus Stealer and its goal is to hide the malicious payload and transfer execution to it in runtime. In this case, it will accomplish its purpose without the need to create another process in the system. The packer is written in C++ and its architecture consists of 3 different layers, we will describe here the steps the malware takes to execute the payload through these different stages and the techniques used to and slow-down analysis.

Packer layers

Figure 2. 2fae828f5ad2d703f5adfacde1d21a1693510754e5871768aea159bbc6ad9775 Packer layers

Layer 1 The first layer of the Packer makes use of junk code and useless loops to avoid analysis and prevent detonation in automated analysis systems. In the end, it will be responsible for executing the following essential tasks:

  1. Allocating space for the Shellcode in the process’s address space
  2. Writing the encrypted Shellcode in this newly allocated space.
  3. Decrypting the Shellcode
  4. Transferring execution to the Shellcode

The initial WinMain() method acts as a wrapper using junk code to finally call the actual “main” procedure. Memory for the Shellcode is reserved using VirtualAlloc and its size appears hardcoded and obfuscated using an ADD instruction. The pages are reserved with read, write and execute permissions (PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE).

Memory allocation

Figure 3. Memory allocation for the Shellcode

We can find the use of junk code almost anywhere in this first layer, as well as useless long loops that may prevent the sample from detonating if it is being emulated or analyzed in simple dynamic analysis Sandboxes. The next step is to load the Shellcode in the allocated space. The packer also has some hardcoded offsets pointing to the encrypted Shellcode and copies it in a loop, byte for byte. The following figure shows the core logic of this layer. The red boxes show junk code whilst the green boxes show the main functionality to get to the next layer.

Core functionality of the first layer

Figure 4. Core functionality of the first layer

The Shellcode is decrypted using a 32 byte key in blocks of 8 bytes. The decryption algorithm uses this key and the encrypted block to perform arithmetic and byte-shift operations using XOR, ADD, SUB, SHL and SHR. Once the Shellcode is ready, it transfers the execution to it using JMP EAX, which leads us to the second layer.

Layer 1 transferring execution

Figure 5. Layer 1 transferring execution to next layer

Layer 2 Layer 2 is a Shellcode with the ultimate task of decrypting another layer. This is not a straightforward process, an overview of which can be summarized in the following points:

  1. Shellcode starts in a wrapper function that calls the main procedure.
  2. Resolve LoadLibraryA and GetProcAddress from kernel32.dll
  3. Load pointers to .dll functions
  4. Decrypt layer 3
  5. Allocate decrypted layer
  6. Transfer execution using JMP

Finding DLLs and Functions This layer will use the TIB (Thread Information Block) to find the PEB (Process Environment Block) structure, which holds a pointer to a PEB_LDR_DATA structure. This structure contains information about all the loaded modules in the current process. More precisely, it traverses the InLoadOrderModuleList and gets the BaseDllName from every loaded module, hashes it with a custom hashing function and compares it with the respective “kernel32.dll” hash.


Figure 6. Traversing InLoadOrderModuleList and hashing BaseDllName.Buffer to find kernel32.dll

Once it finds “kernel32.dll” in this doubly linked list, it gets its DllBase address and loads the Export Table. It will then use the AddressOfNames and AddressOfNameOrdinals lists to find the procedure it needs. It uses the same technique by checking for the respective “LoadLibraryA” and “GetProcAddress” hashes. Once it finds the ordinal that refers to the function, it uses this index to get the address of the function using AddressOfFunctions list.

Resolving function

Figure 7. Resolving function address using the ordinal as an index to AddressOfFunctions list

The hashing function being used to identify the library and function names is custom and uses a parameter that makes it support both ASCII and UNICODE names. It will first use UNICODE hashing when parsing InLoadOrderModuleList (as it loads UNICODE_STRING DllBase) and ASCII when accessing the AddressOfNames list from the Export Directory.

Custom hashing function

Figure 8. Custom hashing function from Layer 2 supporting both ASCII and UNICODE encodings

Once the malware has resolved LoadLibraryA and GetProcAddress from kernel32.dll, it will then use these functions to resolve more necessary APIs and save them in a “Function Table”. To resolve them, it relies on loading strings in the stack before the call to GetProcAddress. The API calls being resolved are:

  • GlobalAlloc
  • GetLastError
  • Sleep
  • VirtualAlloc
  • CreateToolhelp32Snapshot
  • Module32First
  • CloseHandle

Layer 2 resolving functions

Figure 9. Layer 2 resolving functions dynamically for later use

Decryption of Layer 3 After resolving .dlls and the functions it enters in the following procedure, responsible of preparing the next stage, allocating space for it and transferring its execution through a JMP instruction.

Decryption and execution of Layer 3

Figure 10. Decryption and execution of Layer 3 (final layer)

Layer 3 This is the last layer before having the unpacked Taurus Stealer. This last phase is very similar to the previous one but surprisingly less stealthy (the use of hashes to find .dlls and API calls has been removed) now strings stored in the stack, and string comparisons, are used instead. However, some previously unseen new features have been added to this stage, such as anti-emulation checks. This is how it looks the beginning of this last layer. The value at the address 0x00200038 is now empty but will be overwritten later with the OEP (Original Entry Point). When calling unpack the first instruction will execute POP EAX to get the address of the OEP, check whether it is already set and jump accordingly. If not, it will start the final unpacking process and then a JMP EAX will transfer execution to the final Taurus Stealer.

OEP is set

Figure 11. OEP is set. Last Layer before and after the unpacking process.

Finding DLLs and Functions As in the 2nd layer, it will parse the PEB to find DllBase of kernel32.dll walking through InLoadOrderModuleList, and then parse kernel32.dll Exports Directory to find the address of LoadLibraryA and GetProcAddress. This process is very similar to the one seen in the previous layer, but names are stored in the stack instead of using a custom hash function.

Last layer finding APIs

Figure 12. Last layer finding APIs by name stored in the stack instead of using the hashing approach

Once it has access to LoadLibraryA and GetProcAddressA it will start resolving needed API calls. It will do so by storing strings in the stack and storing the function addresses in memory. The functions being resolved are:

  • VirtualAlloc
  • VirtualProtect
  • VirtualFree
  • GetVersionExA
  • TerminateProcess
  • ExitProcess
  • SetErrorMode

Last Layer dynamically resolving APIs

Figure 13. Last Layer dynamically resolving APIs before the final unpack

Anti-Emulation After resolving these API calls, it enters in a function that will prevent the malware from detonating if it is being executed in an emulated environment. We‘ve named this function anti_emulation. It uses a common environment-based opaque predicate calling SetErrorMode API call.

Anti-Emulation technique

Figure 14. Anti-Emulation technique used before transferring execution to the final Taurus Stealer

This technique has been previously documented. The code calls SetErrorMode() with a known value (1024) and then calls it again with a different one. SetErrorMode returns the previous state of the error-mode bit flags. An emulator not implementing this functionality properly (saving the previous state), would not behave as expected and would finish execution at this point.   Transfer execution to Taurus Stealer After this, the packer will allocate memory to copy the clean Taurus Stealer process in, parse its PE (more precisely its Import Table) and load all the necessary imported functions. As previously stated, during this process the offset 0x00200038 from earlier will be overwritten with the OEP (Original Entry Point). Finally, execution gets transferred to the unpacked Taurus Stealer via JMP EAX.

Layer 3 transferring execution

Figure 15. Layer 3 transferring execution to the final unpacked Taurus Stealer

We can dump the unpacked Taurus Stealer from memory (for example after copying the clean Taurus process, before the call to VirtualFree). We will focus the analysis on the unpacked sample with hash d6987aa833d85ccf8da6527374c040c02e8dfbdd8e4e4f3a66635e81b1c265c8.

Taurus Stealer (Unpacked)

The following figure shows Taurus Stealer’s main workflow. Its life cycle is not very different from other malware stealers. However, it is worth mentioning that the Anti-CIS feature (avoid infecting machines coming from the Commonwealth of Independent States) is not optional and is the first feature being executed in the malware.

Taurus Stealer main workflow

Figure 16. Taurus Stealer main workflow

After loading its initial configuration (which includes resolving APIs, Command and Control server, Build Id, etc.), it will go through two checks that prevent the malware from detonating if it is running in a machine coming from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and if it has a modified C2 (probably to avoid detonating on cracked builds). These two initial checks are mandatory. After passing the initial checks, it will establish communication with its C2 and retrieve dynamic configuration (or a static default one if the C2 is not available) and execute the functionalities accordingly before exfiltration. After exfiltration, two functionalities are left: Loader and Self-Delete (both optional). Following this, a clean-up routine will be responsible for deleting strings from memory before finishing execution. Code Obfuscation Taurus Stealer makes heavy use of code obfuscation techniques throughout its execution, which translates to a lot of code for every little task the malware might perform. Taurus string obfuscation is done in an attempt to hide traces and functionality from static tools and to slow down analysis. Although these techniques are not complex, there is almost no single relevant string in cleartext. We will mostly find:

  • XOR encrypted strings
  • SUB encrypted strings

XOR encrypted strings We can find encrypted strings being loaded in the stack and decrypted just before its use. Taurus usually sets an initial hardcoded XOR key to start decrypting the string and then decrypts it in a loop. There are different variations of this routine. Sometimes there is only one hardcoded key, whilst other times there is one initial key that decrypts the first byte of the string, which is used as the rest of the XOR key, etc. The following figure shows the decryption of the string “\Monero” (used in the stealing process). We can see that the initial key is set with ‘PUSH + POP’ and then the same key is used to decrypt the whole string byte per byte. Other approaches use strcpy to load the initial encrypted string directly, for instance.

Example of “\Monero” XOR encrypted string

Figure 17. Example of “\Monero” XOR encrypted string

SUB encrypted strings This is the same approach as with XOR encrypted strings, except for the fact that the decryption is done with subtraction operations. There are different variations of this technique, but all follow the same idea. In the following example, the SUB key is found at the beginning of the encrypted string and decryption starts after the first byte.

Example of “DisplayVersion” SUB encrypted string

Figure 18. Example of “DisplayVersion” SUB encrypted string

Earlier Taurus versions made use of stack strings to hide strings (which can make code blocks look very long). However, this method has been completely removed by the XOR and SUB encryption schemes – probably because these methods do not show the clear strings unless decryption is performed or analysis is done dynamically. Comparatively, in stack strings, one can see the clear string byte per byte. Here is an example of such a replacement from an earlier Taurus sample, when resolving the string “wallet.dat” for DashCore wallet retrieval purposes. This is now done via XOR encryption:  

Stack strings

Figure 19. Stack strings are replaced by XOR and SUB encrypted strings

The combination of these obfuscation techniques leads to a lot of unnecessary loops that slow down analysis and hide functionality from static tools. As a result, the graph view of the core malware looks like this:

Taurus Stealer core

Figure 20. Taurus Stealer core functionality call graph

Resolving APIs The malware will resolve its API calls dynamically using hashes. It will first resolve LoadLibraryA and GetProcAddress from kernel32.dll to ease the resolution of further API calls. It does so by accessing the PEB of the process – more precisely to access the DllBase property of the third element from the InLoadOrderModuleList (which happens to be “kernel32.dll”) – and then use this address to walk through the Export Directory information.

Retrieving kernel32.dll

Figure 21. Retrieving kernel32.dll DllBase by accessing the 3rd entry in the InLoadOrderModuleList list

It will iterate kernel32.dll AddressOfNames structure and compute a hash for every exported function until the corresponding hash for “LoadLibraryA” is found. The same process is repeated for the “GetProcAddress” API call. Once both procedures are resolved, they are saved for future resolution of API calls.

Taurus Stealer iterates

Figure 22. Taurus Stealer iterates AddressOfNames to find an API using a hashing approach

For further API resolutions, a “DLL Table String” is used to index the library needed to load an exported function and then the hash of the needed API call.

DLL Table String

Figure 23. DLL Table String used in API resolutions

Resolving initial Configuration Just as with Predator The Thief, Taurus Stealer will load its initial configuration in a table of function pointers before the execution of the WinMain() function. These functions are executed in order and are responsible for loading the C2, Build Id and the Bot Id/UUID. C2 and Build Id are resolved using the SUB encryption scheme with a one-byte key. The loop uses a hard-coded length, (the size in bytes of the C2 and Build Id), which means that this has been pre-processed beforehand (probably by the builder) and that these procedures would work for only these properties.

Taurus Stealer decrypting

Figure 24. Taurus Stealer decrypting its Command and Control server

BOT ID / UUID Generation Taurus generates a unique identifier for every infected machine. Earlier versions of this malware also used this identifier as the .zip filename containing the stolen data. This behavior has been modified and now the .zip filename is randomly generated (16 random ASCII characters).

Call graph

Figure 25. Call graph from the Bot Id / UUID generation routine

It starts by getting a bitmask of all the currently available disk drives using GetLogicalDrivers and retrieving their VolumeSerialNumber with GetVolumeInformationA. All these values are added into the register ESI (holds the sum of all VolumeSerialNumbers from all available Drive Letters). ESI is then added to itself and right-shifted 3 bytes. The result is a hexadecimal value that is converted to decimal. After all this process, it takes out the first two digits from the result and concatenates its full original part at the beginning. The last step consists of transforming digits in odd positions to ASCII letters (by adding 0x40). As an example, let’s imagine an infected machine with “C:\\”, “D:\\” and “Z:\\” drive letters available.

1. Call GetLogicalDrivers to get a bitmask of all the currently available disk drives.

2. Get their VolumeSerialNumber using GetVolumeInformationA:
ESI holds the sum of all VolumeSerialNumber from all available Drive Letters
GetVolumeInformationA(“C:\\”) -> 7CCD8A24h
GetVolumeInformationA(“D:\\”) -> 25EBDC39h
GetVolumeInformationA(“Z:\\”) -> 0FE01h
ESI = sum(0x7CCD8A24+0x25EBDC3+0x0FE01) = 0xA2BA645E

3. Once finished the sum, it will:
mov edx, esi
edx = (edx >> 3) + edx
Which translates to:
(0xa2ba645e >> 0x3) + 0xa2ba645e = 0xb711b0e9

4. HEX convert the result to decimal
result = hex(0xb711b0e9) = 3071389929

5. Take out the first two digits and concatenate its full original part at the beginning:

6. Finally, it transforms digits in odd positions to ASCII letters:

Anti – CIS 

Taurus Stealer tries to avoid infection in countries belonging to the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) by checking the language identifier of the infected machine via GetUserDefaultLangID. Earlier Taurus Stealer versions used to have this functionality in a separate function, whereas the latest samples include this in the main procedure of the malware. It is worth mentioning that this feature is mandatory and will be executed at the beginning of the malware execution.

Anti-CIS feature

Figure 26. Taurus Stealer Anti-CIS feature

GetUserDefaultLandID returns the language identifier of the Region Format setting for the current user. If it matches one on the list, it will finish execution immediately without causing any harm.

Language IdSubLanguage SymbolCountry

Table 2. Taurus Stealer Language Id whitelist (Anti-CIS)

Anti – C2 Mod. After the Anti-CIS feature has taken place, and before any harmful activity occurs, the retrieved C2 is checked against a hashing function to avoid running with an invalid or modified Command and Control server. This hashing function is the same used to resolve API calls and is as follows:

Taurus Stealer hashing function

Figure 27. Taurus Stealer hashing function

Earlier taurus versions make use of the same hashing algorithm, except they execute two loops instead of one. If the hash of the C2 is not matching the expected one, it will avoid performing any malicious activity. This is most probably done to protect the binary from cracked versions and to avoid leaving traces or uncovering activity if the sample has been modified for analysis purposes.

C2 Communication

Perhaps the biggest change in this new Taurus Stealer version is how the communications with the Command and Control Server are managed. Earlier versions used two main resources to make requests:

/gate/cfg/?post=1&data=<bot_id>Register Bot Id and get dynamic config. Everything is sent in cleartext
/gate/log?post=2&data=<summary_information>Exfiltrate data in ZIP (cleartext) summary_information is encrypted

Table 3. Networking resources from earlier Taurus versions

his new Taurus Stealer version uses:

/cfg/Register Bot Id and get dynamic config. BotId is sent encrypted
/dlls/Ask for necessary .dlls (Browsers Grabbing)
/log/Exfiltrate data in ZIP (encrypted)
/loader/complete/ACK execution of Loader module

Table 4. Networking resources from new Taurus samples

This time no data is sent in cleartext. Taurus Stealer uses wininet APIs InternetOpenA, InternetSetOptionA, InternetConnectA, HttpOpenRequestA, HttpSendRequestA, InternetReadFile and InternetCloseHandle for its networking functionalities.  

User-Agent generation


Figure 28. User-Agent generation routine call graph

The way Taurus generates the User-Agent that it will use for networking purposes is different from earlier versions and has introduced more steps in its creation, ending up in more variable results. This routine follows the next steps:

1. It will first get OS Major Version and OS Minor Version information from the PEB. In this example, we will let OS Major Version be 6 and OS Minor Version be 1.

1.1 Read TIB[0x30] -> PEB[0x0A] -> OS Major Version -> 6

1.2 Read PEB[0xA4] -> OS Minor Version -> 1

2. Call to IsWow64Process to know if the process is running under WOW64 (this will be needed later).

3. Decrypt string “.121 Safari/537.36”

4. Call GetTickCount and store result in EAX (for this example: EAX = 0x0540790F)

5. Convert HEX result to decimal result: 88111375

6. Ignore the first 4 digits of the result: 1375

7. Decrypt string “ AppleWebKit / 537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome / 83.0.”

8. Check the result from the previous call to IsWow64Process and store it for later.

8.1 If the process is running under WOW64: Decrypt the string “ WOW64)”

8.2 If the process is not running under WOW64: Load char “)” In this example we will assume the process is running under WOW64.

9. Transform from HEX to decimal OS Minor Version (“1”)

10. Transform from HEX to decimal OS Major Version (“6”)

11. Decrypt string “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT ”

12. Append OS Major Version -> “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6”

13. Append ‘.’ (hardcoded) -> “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.”

14. Append OS Minor Version -> “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1”

15. Append ‘;’ (hardcoded) -> “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1;”

16. Append the WOW64 modifier explained before -> “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64)”

17. Append string “ AppleWebKit / 537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome / 83.0.” -> “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit / 537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome / 83.0.”

18. Append result of from the earlier GetTickCount (1375 after its processing) -> “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit / 537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome / 83.0.1375”

19. Append the string “.121 Safari/537.36” to get the final result:

“Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit / 537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome / 83.0.1375.121 Safari/537.36”

Which would have looked like this if the process was not running under WOW64:

“Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1;) AppleWebKit / 537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome / 83.0.1375.121 Safari/537.36”

The bold characters from the generated User-Agent are the ones that could vary depending on the OS versions, if the machine is running under WOW64 and the result of GetTickCount call.

How the port is set In the analyzed sample, the port for communications is set as a hardcoded value in a variable that is used in the code. This setting is usually hidden. Sometimes a simple “push 80” in the middle of the code, or a setting to a variable using “mov [addr], 0x50” is used. Other samples use https and set the port with a XOR operation like “0x3a3 ^ 0x218” which evaluates to “443”, the standard https port. In the analyzed sample, before any communication with the C2 is made, a hardcoded “push 0x50 + pop EDI” is executed to store the port used for communications (port 80) in EDI. EDI register will be used later in the code to access the communications port where necessary. The following figure shows how Taurus Stealer checks which is the port used for communications and how it sets dwFlags for the call to HttpOpenRequestA accordingly.


Figure 29. Taurus Stealer sets dwFlags according to the port

So, if the samples uses port 80 or any other port different from 443, the following flags will be used:


If it uses port 443, the flags will be:


RC4 Taurus Stealer uses RC4 stream cipher as its first layer of encryption for communications with the C2. The symmetric key used for this algorithm is randomly generated, which means the key will have to be stored somewhere in the body of the message being sent so that the receiver can decrypt the content. Key Generation The procedure we’ve named getRandomString is the routine called by Taurus Stealer to generate the RC4 symmetric key. It receives 2 parameters, the first is an output buffer that will receive the key and the second is the length of the key to be generated. To create the random chunk of data, it generates an array of bytes loading three XMM registers in memory and then calling rand() to get a random index that it will use to get a byte from this array. This process is repeated for as many bytes as specified by the second parameter. Given that all the bytes in these XMM registers are printable, this suggests that getRandomString produces an alphanumeric key of n bytes length.  


Figure 30. Taurus Stealer getRandomString routine

Given the lack of srand, no seed is initialized and the rand function will end up giving the same “random” indexes. In the analyzed sample, there is only one point in which this functionality is called with a different initial value (when creating a random directory in %PROGRAMDATA% to store .dlls, as we will see later). We’ve named this function getRandomString2 as it has the same purpose. However, it receives an input buffer that has been processed beforehand in another function (we’ve named this function getRandomBytes). This input buffer is generated by initializing a big buffer and XORing it over a loop with the result of a GetTickCount call. This ends up giving a “random” input buffer which getRandomString2 will use to get indexes to an encrypted string that resolves in runtime as “ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789”, and finally generate a random string for a given length. We have seen other Taurus Stealer samples moving onto this last functionality (using input buffers XORed with the result of a GetTickCount call to generate random chunks of data) every time randomness is needed (generation communication keys, filenames, etc.). The malware sample d0aa932e9555a8f5d9a03a507d32ab3ef0b6873c4d9b0b34b2ac1bd68f1abc23 is an example of these Taurus Stealer variants.


Figure 31. Taurus Stealer getRandomBytes routine

BASE64 This is the last encoding layer before C2 communications happen. It uses a classic BASE64 to encode the message (that has been previously encrypted with RC4) and then, after encoding, the RC4 symmetric key is appended to the beginning of the message. The receiver will then need to get the key from the beginning of the message, BASE64 decode the rest of it and use the retrieved key to decrypt the final RC4 encrypted message. To avoid having a clear BASE64 alphabet in the code, it uses XMM registers to load an encrypted alphabet that is decrypted using the previously seen SUB encryption scheme before encoding.

hiding Base64 alphabet

Figure 32. Taurus Stealer hiding Base64 alphabet

This is what the encryption procedure would look like:

  • 1. Generate RC4 key using getRandomString with a hardcoded size of 16 bytes.
  • 2. RC4 encrypt the message using the generated 16 byte key.
  • 3. BASE64 encode the encrypted message.
  • 4. Append RC4 symmetric key at the beginning of the encoded message.

Taurus Stealer encryption routine

Figure 33. Taurus Stealer encryption routine

Bot Registration + Getting dynamic configuration Once all the initial checks have been successfully passed, it is time for Taurus to register this new Bot and retrieve the dynamic configuration. To do so, a request to the resource /cfg/ of the C2 is made with the encrypted Bot Id as a message. For example, given a BotId “s0w1s8y9r9w1s8y9r9 and a key “IDaJhCHdIlfHcldJ”:

RC4(“IDaJhCHdIlfHcldJ”, “s0w1s8y9r9w1s8y9r9”) = 018784780c51c4916a4ee1c50421555e4991

It then BASE64 encodes it and appends the RC4 key at the beginning of the message:


An example of the response from the C2 could be:


The responses go through a decryption routine that will reverse the steps described above to get the plaintext message. As you can see in the following figure, the key length is hardcoded in the binary and expected to be 16 bytes long.

decrypting C2 responses

Figure 34. Taurus Stealer decrypting C2 responses

To decrypt it, we do as follow: 1. Get RC4 key (first 16 bytes of the message) xBtSRalRvNNFBNqA 2. BASE64 decode the rest of the message (after the RC4 key)


3. Decrypt the message using RC4 key (get dynamic config.) [1;1;1;1;1;0;1;1;1;1;1;1;1;1;1;1;1;5000;0;0]#[]#[;US]#[] We can easily see that consecutive configurations are separated by the character “;”, while the character ‘#’ is used to separate different configurations. We can summarize them like this: [STEALER_CONFIG]#[GRABBER_CONFIG]#[NETWORK_CONFIG]#[LOADER_CONFIG]   In case the C2 is down and no dynamic configuration is available, it will use a hardcoded configuration stored in the binary which would enable all stealers, Anti-VM, and Self-Delete features. (Dynamic Grabber and Loader modules are not enabled by default in the analyzed sample).

static hardcoded

Figure 35. Taurus uses a static hardcoded configuration If C2 is not available

Anti – VM (optional) This functionality is optional and depends on the retrieved configuration. If the malware detects that it is running in a Virtualized environment, it will abort execution before causing any damage. It makes use of old and common x86 Anti-VM instructions (like the RedPill technique) to detect the Virtualized environment in this order:

  • SIDT
  • SGDT
  • STR
  • SMSW
Anti-VM routine

Figure 36. Taurus Stealer Anti-VM routine

Stealer / Grabber

We can distinguish 5 main grabbing methods used in the malware. All paths and strings required, as usual with Taurus Stealer, are created at runtime and come encrypted in the methods described before. Grabber 1 This is one of the most used grabbing methods, along with the malware execution (if it is not used as a call to the grabbing routine it is implemented inside another function in the same way), and consists of traversing files (it ignores directories) by using kernel32.dll FindFirstFileA, FindNextFileA and FindClose API calls. This grabbing method does not use recursion. The grabber expects to receive a directory as a parameter for those calls (it can contain wildcards) to start the search with. Every found file is grabbed and added to a ZIP file in memory for future exfiltration. An example of its use can be seen in the Wallets Stealing functionality, when searching, for instance, for Electrum wallets: Grabber 2 This grabber is used in the Outlook Stealing functionality and uses advapi32.dll RegOpenKeyA, RegEnumKeyA, RegQueryValueExA and RegCloseKey API calls to access the and steal from Windows Registry. It uses a recursive approach and will start traversing the Windows Registry searching for a specific key from a given starting point until RegEnumKeyA has no more keys to enumerate. For instance, in the Outlook Stealing functionality this grabber is used with the starting Registry key “HKCU\software\microsoft\office” searching for the key “9375CFF0413111d3B88A00104B2A667“. Grabber 3 This grabber is used to steal browsers data and uses the same API calls as Grabber 1 for traversing files. However, it loops through all files and directories from %USERS% directory and favors recursion. Files found are processed and added to the ZIP file in memory. One curious detail is that if a “wallet.dat” is found during the parsing of files, it will only be dumped if the current depth of the recursion is less or equal to 5. This is probably done in an attempt to avoid dumping invalid wallets. We can summarize the files Taurus Stealer is interested in the following table:

Grabbed FileAffected Software
formhistory.sqliteMozilla Firefox & Others
cookies.sqliteMozilla Firefox & Others
signongs.sqliteMozilla Firefox & Others
places.sqliteMozilla Firefox & Others
Login DataChrome / Chromium based
CookiesChrome / Chromium based
Web DataBrowser

Table 5. Taurus Stealer list of files for Browser Stealing functionalities

Grabber 4

This grabber steals information from the Windows Vault, which is the default storage vault for the credential manager information. This is done through the use of Vaultcli.dll, which encapsulates the necessary functions to access the Vault. Internet Explorer data, since it’s version 10, is stored in the Vault. The malware loops through its items using:

  • VaultEnumerateVaults
  • VaultOpenVault
  • VaultEnumerateItems
  • VaultGetItem
  • VaultFree

Grabber 5 This last grabber is the customized grabber module (dynamic grabber). This module is responsible for grabbing files configured by the threat actor operating the botnet. When Taurus makes its first request to the C&C, it retrieves the malware configuration, which can include a customized grabbing configuration to search and steal files. This functionality is not enabled in the default static configuration from the analyzed sample (the configuration used when the C2 is not available). As in earlier grabbing methods, this is done via file traversing using kernel32.dll FindFirstFileA, FindNextFileA and FindClose API calls. The threat actor may set recursive searches (optional) and multiple wildcards for the search.

Threat Actor

Figure 37. Threat Actor can add customized grabber rules for the dynamic grabber

Targeted Software This is the software the analyzed sample is targeting. It has functionalities to steal from: Wallets:

  • Electrum
  • MultiBit
  • Armory
  • Ethereum
  • Bytecoin
  • Jaxx
  • Atomic
  • Exodus
  • Dahscore
  • Bitcoin
  • Wasabi
  • Daedalus
  • Monero


  • Steam


  • Telegram
  • Discord
  • Jabber


  • FoxMail
  • Outlook


  • FileZilla
  • WinSCP

2FA Software:

  • Authy


  • NordVPN


  • Mozilla Firefox (also Gecko browsers)
  • Chrome (also Chromium browsers)
  • Internet Explorer
  • Edge
  • Browsers using the same files the grabber targets.

However, it has been seen in other samples and their advertisements that Taurus Stealer also supports other software not included in the list like BattleNet, Skype and WinFTP. As mentioned earlier, they also have an open communication channel with their customers, who can suggest new software to add support to. Stealer Dependencies Although the posts that sell the malware in underground forums claim that Taurus Stealer does not have any dependencies, when stealing browser information (by looping through files recursively using the “Grabber 3” method described before), if it finds “logins.json” or “signons.sqlite” it will then ask for needed .dlls to its C2. It first creates a directory in %PROGRAMDATA%\<bot id>, where it is going to dump the downloaded .dlls. It will check if “%PROGRAMDATA%\<bot id>\nss3.dll” exists and will ask for its C2 (doing a request to /dlls/ resource) if not. The .dlls will be finally dumped in the following order:

  • 1. freebl3.dll
  • 2. mozglue.dll
  • 3. msvcp140.dll
  • 4. nss3.dll
  • 5. softokn3.dll
  • 6. vcruntime140.dll

If we find the C2 down (when analyzing the sample, for example), we will not be able to download the required files. However, the malware will still try, no matter what, to load those libraries after the request to /dlls/ has been made (starting by loading “nss3.dll”), which would lead to a crash. The malware would stop working from this point. In contrast, if the C2 is alive, the .dlls will be downloaded and written to disk in the order mentioned before. The following figure shows the call graph from the routine responsible for requesting and dumping the required libraries to disk.  

Figure 38. Taurus Stealer dumping retrieved .dlls from its Command and Control Server to disk

Information Gathering After the Browser stealing process is finished, Taurus proceeds to gather information from the infected machine along with the Taurus Banner and adds this data to the ZIP file in memory with the filename “Information.txt”. All this functionality is done through a series of unnecessary steps caused by all the obfuscation techniques to hide strings, which leads to a horrible function call graph:

dumping retrieved

Figure 39. Taurus Stealer main Information Gathering routine call graph

It gets information and concatenates it sequentially in memory until we get the final result:

‘ ______ _____ __ __ ‘

‘ ‘

‘ /_ __/___ ___ _________ _______ / ___// /____ ____ _/ /__ ‘

‘ _____’

‘ / / / __ `/ / / / ___/ / / / ___/ \__ \/ __/ _ \/ __ `/ / _ \’

‘/ ___/’

‘ / / / /_/ / /_/ / / / /_/ (__ ) ___/ / /_/ __/ /_/ / / __/’

‘ / ‘

‘/_/ \__,_/\__,_/_/ \__,_/____/ /____/\__/\___/\__,_/_/\___/_’




‘|Buy at Telegram: |Buy at Jabber: taurus_selle’




‘UID: s0w1s8y9r9w1s8y9r9’

‘Prefix: MyAwesomePrefix’

‘Date: 15.4.2021 14:57’

‘IP: ‘

‘Country: ‘

‘OS: Windows 6.1 7601 x64’

‘Logical drives: C: D: Z: ‘

‘Current username: User’

‘Computername: USER-PC’


‘Computer users: All Users, Default, Default User, Public, User, ‘

‘Keyboard: Spanish (Spain, International Sort)/English (United States)’

‘Active Window: IDA – C:\Users\User\Desktop\TAURUS_v2.idb (TAURUS_’


‘CPU name: Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6500U CPU @ 2.50GHz’

‘Number of CPU kernels: 2’

‘GPU name: VirtualBox Graphics Adapter’

‘RAM: 3 GB’

‘Screen resolution: 1918×1017’

‘Working path: C:\Users\User\Desktop\TAURUS_v2.exe’,0

One curious difference from earlier Taurus Stealer versions is that the Active Window from the infected machine is now also included in the information gathering process.

Enumerate Installed Software As part of the information gathering process, it will try to get a list of the installed software from the infected machine by looping in the registry from “HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall” and retrieving DisplayName and DisplayVersion with RegQueryValueExA until RegEnumKeyA does not find more keys. If software in the registry list has the key “DisplayName”, it gets added to the list of installed software. Then, if it also has “Display Version” key, the value is appended to the name. In case this last key is not available, “[Unknown]” is appended instead. Following the pattern: “DisplayName\tDisplayVersion” As an example:

“Cheat Engine 6.5.1\t[Unknown]” “Google Chrome\t[89.0.4389.90]” (…)

The list of software is included in the ZIP file in memory with the filename “Installed Software.txt”

C2 Exfiltration

During the stealing process, the data that is grabbed from the infected machine is saved in a ZIP file in memory. As we have just seen, information gathering files are also included in this fileless ZIP. When all this data is ready, Taurus Stealer will proceed to:

  • 1. Generate a Bot Id results summary message.
  • 2. Encrypt the ZIP file before exfiltration.
  • 3. Exfiltrate the ZIP file to Command and Control server.
  • 4. Delete traces from networking activity

Generate Bot Id results summary The results summary message is created in 2 stages. The first stage loads generic information from the infected machine (Bot Id, Build Id, Windows version and architecture, current user, etc.) and a summary count of the number of passwords, cookies, etc. stolen. As an example:

s0w1s8y9r9w1s8y9r9|MyAwesomePrefix|Windows 6.1 7601 x64|USER-PC|WORKGROUP|||0|576|0|7|empty

Finally, it concatenates a string that represents a mask stating which Software has been available to steal information from (e.g. Telegram, Discord, FileZilla, WinSCP. etc.).

s0w1s8y9r9w1s8y9r9|MyAwesomePrefix|Windows 6.1 7601 x64|USER-PC|WORKGROUP|||0|576|0|7|empty|1|1|0|0|0|1|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0

This summary information is then added in the memory ZIP file with the filename “LogInfo.txt”. This behavior is different from earlier Taurus Stealer versions, where the information was sent as part of the URL (when doing exfiltration POST request to the resource /gate/log/) in the parameter “data”. Although this summary information was encrypted, the exfiltrated ZIP file was sent in cleartext. Encrypt ZIP before exfiltration Taurus Stealer will then encrypt the ZIP file in memory using the techniques described before: using the RC4 stream cipher with a randomly generated key and encoding the result in BASE64. Because the RC4 key is needed to decrypt the message, the key is included at the beginning of the encoded message. In the analyzed sample, as we saw before, the key length is hardcoded and is 16 bytes. As an example, this could be an encrypted message being sent in a POST request to the /log/ resource of a Taurus Stealer C2, where the RC4 key is included at the beginning of the message (first 16 characters).

“jaCghbIiGeGEADIjMayhQpGzXwORMFuHXzsUCiVH12jIA” (…)

Exfiltrate ZIP file to Command and Control server As in the earlier versions, it uses a try-retry logic where it will try to exfiltrate up to 10 times (in case the network is failing, C2 is down, etc.). It does so by opening a handle using HttpOpenRequestA for the “/log/” resource and using this handle in a call to HttpSendRequestA, where exfiltration is done (the data to be exfiltrated is in the post_data argument). The following figure shows this try-retry logic in a loop that executes HttpSendRequestA.


Figure 40. Taurus Stealer will try to exfiltrate up to 10 times

The encrypted ZIP file is sent with Content-Type: application/octet-stream. The filename is a randomly generated string of 16 bytes. However, earlier Taurus Stealer versions used the Bot Id as the .zip filename. Delete traces from networking activity After exfiltration, it uses DeleteUrlCacheEntry with the C2 as a parameter for the API call, which deletes the cache entry for a given URL. This is the last step of the exfiltration process and is done to avoid leaving traces from the networking activity in the infected machine.

Loader (optional)

Upon exfiltration, the Loader module is executed. This module is optional and gets its configuration from the first C2 request. If the module is enabled, it will load an URL from the Loader configuration and execute URLOpenBlockingStream to download a file. This file will then be dumped in %TEMP% folder using a random filename of 8 characters. Once the file has been successfully dumped in the infected machine it will execute it using ShellExecuteA with the option nShowCmd as “SW_HIDE”, which hides the window and activates another one. If persistence is set in the Loader configuration, it will also schedule a task in the infected machine to run the downloaded file every minute using:

C:\windows\system32\cmd.exe /c schtasks /create /F /sc minute /mo 1 /tn “\WindowsAppPool\AppP ool” /tr “C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Temp\FfjDEIdA.exe”

The next figure shows the Schedule Task Manager from an infected machine where the task has been scheduled to run every minute indefinitely.

Loader persistence

Figure 41. Loader persistence is carried out by creating a scheduled task to run every minute indefinitely

Once the file is executed, a new POST request is made to the C2 to the resource /loader/complete/. The following figure summarizes the main responsibilities of the Loader routine.

Taurus Stealer Loader

Figure 42. Taurus Stealer Loader routine call graph

Self-Delete (optional)

This functionality is the last one being executed in the malware and is also optional, although it is enabled by default if no response from the C2 was received in the first request. It will use CreateProcessA to execute cmd.exe with the following arguments:

cmd.exe /c timeout /t 3 & del /f /q <malware_filepath>

Malware_filepath is the actual path of the binary being executed (itself). A small timeout is set to give time to the malware to finish its final tasks. After the creation of this process, only a clean-up routine is executed to delete strings from memory before finishing execution.

YARA rule

This memory Yara rule detects both old and new Taurus Stealer versions. It targets some unique functionalities from this malware family:

  • Hex2Dec: Routine used to convert from a Hexadecimal value to a Decimal value.
  • Bot Id/UUID generation routine.
  • getRandomString: Routine used to generate a random string using rand() over a static input buffer
  • getRandomString2: Routine used to generate a random string using rand() over an input buffer previously “randomized” with GetTickCount
  • getRandomBytes: Routine to generate “random” input buffers for getRandomString2
  • Hashing algorithm used to resolve APIs and Anti – C2 mod. feature.

rule taurus_stealer_memory {
description = “Detects Taurus Stealer”
author = “Blueliv”
date = “27/04/2021”
/* Hex2Dec */
$op00 = { 33 D2 4E 6A 0A 59 F7 F1 80 C2 30 88 16 85 C0 75 EF 51 8D 45 FD 8B CF 50 56 E8 ?? ?? ?? ?? 8B C7 5F 5E C9 C3 }
/* Bot Id/UUID Generation */
$op01 = { 8D ?? ?? ?? ?? 8D [2-3] 7? ?? [4-5] 0F [3-4] 8A 04 ?? 04 40 EB }
/* getRandomString */
$op02 = { E8 ?? ?? ?? ?? 99 6A 17 59 F7 F9 (83 ?? ?? ?? 8D ?? ?? | 8D ?? ?? 83 ?? ?? ??) [0-3] 0F 43 ?? ?? }
/* getRandomString2 */
$op03 = { 33 D2 F7 36 8B 74 8E 08 8B 4D FC 6A 3F 03 74 91 08 33 D2 8B 41 4C F7 31 }
/* getRandomBytes */
$op04 = { C7 46 ?? ?? 42 0F 00 C7 46 ?? ?? 42 0F 00 C7 46 ?? ?? 42 0F 00 89 ?? ?? E8 ?? ?? ?? ?? FF D0 39 1E 76 0A 31 07 43 8D 7F 04 3B 1E 72 F6 }
/* Hashing algorithm */
$op05 = { 0F BE [1-2] 33 C2 (C1 EA 08 0F B6 C0 | 0F B6 C0 C1 EA 08) 33 14 85 ?? ?? ?? ?? 4? }
4 of them


Tactic Technique ID Technique 
Execution T1059 Command and Scripting Interpreter 
Execution / Persistence T1053 Scheduled Task/Job 
Defense Evasion T1140 Deobfuscate/Decode Files or Information 
Defense Evasion T1070 Indicator Removal on Host 
Defense Evasion T1027 Obfuscated Files or Information 
Defense Evasion / Discovery T1497 Virtualization/Sandbox Evasion 
Credential Access T1539 Steal Web Session Cookie 
Credential Access T1555 Credentials from Password Stores 
Credential Access T1552 Unsecured Credentials 
Discovery T1087 Account Discovery 
Discovery T1010 Application Window Discovery 
Discovery T1083 File and Directory Discovery 
Discovery T1120 Peripheral Device Discovery 
Discovery T1012 Query Registry 
Discovery T1518 Software Discovery 
Discovery T1082 System Information Discovery 
Discovery T1016 System Network Configuration Discovery 
Discovery T1033 System Owner/User Discovery 
Discovery T1124 System Time Discovery 
Collection T1560 Archive Collected Data 
Collection T1005 Data from Local System 
Collection T1113 Screen Capture 
Command and Control T1071 Application Layer Protocol 
Command and Control T1132 Data Encoding 
Command and Control T1041 Exfiltration over C2 Channel 


Information Stealers like Taurus Stealer are dangerous and can cause a lot of damage to individuals and organizations (privacy violation, leakage of confidential information, etc.). Consequences vary depending on the significance of the stolen data. This goes from usernames and passwords (which could be targetted by threat actors to achieve privilege escalation and lateral movement, for example) to information that grants them immediate financial profit, such as cryptocurrency wallets. In addition, stolen email accounts can be used to send spam and/or distribute malware. As has been seen throughout the analysis, Taurus Stealer looks like an evolving malware that is still being updated (improving its code by adding features, more obfuscation and bugfixes) as well as it’s Panel, which keeps having updates with more improvements (such as adding filters for the results coming from the malware or adding statistics for the loader). The fact the malware is being actively used in the wild suggests that it will continue evolving and adding more features and protections in the future, especially as customers have an open dialog channel to request new software to target or to suggest improvements to improve functionality. For more details about how we reverse engineer and analyze malware, visit our targeted malware module page.


Hashes Taurus Stealer (earlier version):

  • Packed: 4a30ef818603b0a0f2b8153d9ba6e9494447373e86599bcc7c461135732e64b2
  • Unpacked: ddc7b1bb27e0ef8fb286ba2b1d21bd16420127efe72a4b7ee33ae372f21e1000

Taurus Stealer (analyzed sample):

  • Packed: 2fae828f5ad2d703f5adfacde1d21a1693510754e5871768aea159bbc6ad9775
  • Unpacked: d6987aa833d85ccf8da6527374c040c02e8dfbdd8e4e4f3a66635e81b1c265c8

C2 64[.]225[.]22[.]106 (earlier Taurus Stealer) dmpfdmserv275[.]xyz (analyzed Taurus Stealer)


Cyber Intelligence Infoblox, “WordyThief: A Malicious Spammer”, October, 2020. [Online]. Available: [Accessed April 25, 2021] 

fumik0, “Predator The Thief: In-depth analysis (v2.3.5)”, October, 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed April 25, 2021] 

fumik0, “Let’s play (again) with Predator the thief”, December, 2019. [Online]. Available: [Accessed April 25, 2021] 

Threat Intelligence Team, “Taurus Project stealer now spreading via malvertising campaign”, September, 2020. [Online]. Available: [Accessed April 25, 2021] 

Avinash Kumar, Uday Pratap Singh, “Taurus: The New Stealer in Town”, June, 2020. [Online] Available: [Accessed April 25, 2021] 

Joxean Koret, “Antiemulation Techniques (Malware Tricks II)”, February, 2010. [Online] Available: [Accessed April 25, 2021] 

About the Author

Alberto Marin author
Alberto Marín Reverse Engineering Team Lead, Outpost24

Alberto leads the Reverse Engineering team at Outpost24's KrakenLabs department. He has been working in cybersecurity since 2014, focusing on malware research, reverse engineering, and Sandbox development for automated malware analysis.